Nikolaos Malandrakis

Ph.D. USC Viterbi School of Engineering

"There can be no transforming of darkness into light and of apathy into movement without emotion." - Carl Gustav Jung


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Lexicon generation process

Emotiword is an psycholinguistic norm lexicon: a resource containing ratings of normative characteristic values for a collection of words.

The ratings generated are in continuous scales, in [-1,+1], for the following dimensions:

  • Arousal: Intesity of emotion
  • Valence: Evaluation of emotion
  • Dominance: Feeling of control over ones situation
  • Pleasantness: Degree of pleasant feelings
  • Concreteness: Degree of perceptibility using the 5 senses
  • Imagability: Ability to create mental image of
  • Age of acquisition: How late one is expected to acquire the word
  • Familarity: Knowledge/exposure to the word
  • Pronouncability: Ease of pronounciation
  • Context Availability: Different contexts under which the word is relevant
  • Gender Ladenness: Degree of masculine or feminine association (low = masculine, high = feminine)
  • Meaningfulness (Colorado Norms): Number of associated words
  • Meaningfulness (Paivio Norms): Number of associated words
The process is detailed in the publications page.


A web demonstration of the resulting psycholinguistic norms. You can enter words, sets of words or sentences and (assuming the appropriate words exist in the available dictionary) the system will return the relevant ratings.

Text input: